THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK|Essay pro

Posted: January 28th, 2023

Project Organization

 

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The written project is organized by Chapters with sections and as follows:

Title Page

The title page is organized according to APA format. The title page must include the title of the project in capital letters, the project author’s name and credentials, and the following statement: “A project submitted to the faculty of D’Youville Division of Academic Affairs in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nursing, Buffalo, New York, and the date the final project was approved.” This information is centered between the right and left margins.

Copyright Page

 

This page has the following statement: “Copyright © year by project author name. All rights reserved. No part of this project may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of the project author.”

 

Project Approval Page

 

This page lists the Project Chair and their respective discipline as well as the date the project was defended on.

 

Abstract

 

The abstract is presented before Chapter I. The APA Manual 7th edition recommends that the abstract should be no more than 250 words. It consists of a succinct summary of the entire project and highlights the details of the identified problem, the project purpose, the theoretical framework(s), and evaluative measures. The abstract heading is bolded and centered. Prior to the defense, the abstract is written in future tense because the project is not complete. After the defense, the abstract is written in past tense. The project abstract should be formatted as follows after the defense as it is written in past tense here:

 

Abstract (Educational Projects)

 

Nursing Resource Team (NRT) staff nurses rotate throughout various clinical units within health care facilities and organizations to meet nurse staffing needs and to alleviate the burden of nurses working understaffed. Because of the nature of their job, NRT staff nurses often encounter profound job challenges. The purpose of this project was to develop an interview schedule to assist NRT nurse managers in exploring factors viewed as important by NRT staff nurses regarding job satisfaction, efficiency, productivity, and retention. Kanter’s (1977, 1993) Structural Theory of Organizational Behavior and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1987) were utilized as theoretical frameworks. Five content experts voluntarily participated in the review of the NRT interview schedule for content validity.

Abstract (Quality)

 

Introduction, Research Question, Problem Statement, Literature Review, Methodology, Procedure for setting and subjects, procedure for data collection and tools, and Results.

 

Acknowledgement

 

This statement is optional. The project author may choose to acknowledge individuals as appropriate.

 

Table of Contents

 

An outline for the table of contents can be developed. Page numbers are added when the project is completed. An example is provided in this handbook.

 

 

Section I- Educational Project

 

 

Instructions for Chapter I

 

The project is double spaced, and each paragraph is indented. The following sections of Chapter I include instructions and examples for the project:

 

CHAPTER I

 

1. Instructions for the Introduction section

 

The function of the introduction is to attract or grab the reader’s interest and attention. The introduction consists of a broad overview of the project problem. The introduction should contain information that informs the reader about the basic nature and scope of the problem. References and statistics can be briefly utilized to reinforce the significance of (the importance) and the need (justification) for the project. The student is advised to begin a reference page on a separate page (the last page of the paper and before the appendices) entitled as References (bolded and centered) with all articles used to write this section cited in APA format. The introduction section should be presented in one to two paragraphs and should range in length between ½ of one page to 1 ½ pages maximum. In accordance with APA guidelines, there is no header for the introduction section because the introduction is clearly identified by its position in the manuscript.

 

2. Instructions for the Statement of Purpose section

 

This section follows the introduction. The Statement of Purpose describes the purpose of the project in one succinct and concise statement and clearly identifies to the reader what (product) is to be produced as a result of the project, who the project is intended for (participants), where the project will be utilized (the intended setting), and why the project is being developed. For example:

 

Statement of Purpose

 

The purpose of this project is to develop an educational training program (what- product) for adult mental health nurses (who) working in a mental health inpatient hospital setting (where) regarding the importance of utilizing therapeutic communication to promote positive patient outcomes (why). **After the defense, this statement is written in past tense i.e. The purpose of this project was to develop……

 

* The title of the project reflects the Statement of Purpose. For example:

 

An Educational Training Program for Adult Mental Health Nurses to Regarding the Utilization of Therapeutic Communication

 

3. Instructions for the Theoretical Framework and Nursing’s Metaparadigm section

 

This section follows the Statement of Purpose. The student chooses a nursing theory to guide and support the development of the project. A second theory from a discipline outside of nursing such as sociology, education, or management non-nursing theorist may also be used. The theoretical framework section introduces the theory and includes a discussion of the major components, concepts, definitions, assumptions, and propositions found within the theory. The theory needs to “fit” well with original concepts describing the project purpose. The student summarizes how the theory “fits” the project purpose by discussing how the theory’s main components, concepts, definitions, assumptions, and propositions are connected or related to the project purpose. The most current theory source (written by the theorist) is to be used as the primary reference source by the student. No secondary sources are permitted unless approved by the Project Chair . Additionally, in the theoretical framework section, the student discusses nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts (nurse, health, person, and environment) as they are defined by the nursing theorist and how each of the four metaparadigm concepts are operationally defined by the student. The theoretical definitions are cited in APA format (source, year, page). The theoretical framework section should be a minimum of 3 pages in length. This section should be presented as follows:

 

Theoretical Framework

 

Hildegard Peplau’s (2004) Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory is utilized as the theoretical framework for the development of this project. A brief overview of the theory is presented as well as a discussion regarding how the theory was utilized to guide the development of the project. In addition, Peplau’s (2004) theoretical definitions for nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts (nursing, health, person, and environment) as well as the Project

Author’s operational definitions for nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts will be presented.

 

Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory

 

Hildegard Peplau is often regarded as the mother of psychiatric nursing….

Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory and Nursing’s Metaparadigm

 

In her Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory, Peplau (2004) defines nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts (nurse, health, patient, and environment) as follows. Nurse is defined by Peplau (2004) as…. (p.). For the purpose of this project, nurse is operationally defined as…. Peplau (2004) defines health as…. (p.). Health is operationally defined for the purpose of this project as…. Person is defined as…. (Peplau, 2004, p.). Person is operationally defined for the purpose of this project as…. Finally, environment is defined as …. (Peplau, 2004, p.). Environment is operationally defined for the purpose of the project as….

 

Example regarding how to summarize nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts for a theory with implied definitions for nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts:

Although Benner (2001) did not outwardly and explicitly define nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts (nursing, person, health, and environment) in her Novice to Expert theory, she described them as follows. Nursing is described by Benner (2001) as a helping role and as giving and receiving help… Nursing, for the purpose of this project, is operationally defined as a professional nurse in one of Benner’s five stages of skill acquisition…

 

4. Instructions for the Initial Review of the Literature section

 

This section follows the Theoretical Framework section. The initial review of the literature presents a brief synthesis of at least 20 original research articles from North American journals (10 of the 20 original articles should originate from North American nursing journals and populations under study must be in US or Canada) that the student has reviewed thus far describing current evidence-based research findings in the project area of interest. Articles should be published within the last 5 years to ensure and to reflect current research-based evidence and practice. Additional articles may be requested by the Project Chair at their discretion. The initial review of the literature is a short summary of what is already known about the project area of interest, what has been successfully implemented, what is lacking and in need of further exploration, and articles emphasizing use of the theoretical framework chosen by the student as it pertains to the project area of interest. At times, classic and seminal work older than the 5-year limit can be included in the review of the literature since they are timeless and continue to support current practice. The Initial Review of the Literature is written following APA format and should include subheadings addressing areas of the literature explored. The Initial Review of the Literature section should be presented as follows:

 

Initial Review of the Literature

 

A review of nursing and health related literature was (the initial review of literature has been conducted so in this section, you can write in past tense) conducted to explore (project area of interest) using the following keywords both singularly and in multiple combinations: , , . Databases searched, limited to the years to , included AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and EBSCO. The search was limited to the years to to ensure that current evidence-based literature was reviewed and summarized for the purpose of this project. A summary of the review of the literature is presented.

 

Therapeutic Communication

According to Smith (2021) …

 

* After a student successfully defends Chapter I (the Project Proposal), the initial review of the literature is then moved into Chapter II with a section replacing the initial review of the literature in Chapter I entitled Literature Synopsis. The Literature Synopsis section in Chapter I presents a summary of literature review findings in Chapter II once the literature review is completed in Chapter II.

 

 

5. Instructions for the Significance and Justification section

 

The Significance and Justification section follows the Initial Review of the Literature. The Significance and Justification section presents the necessity of the project (significance) and is supported by clinical evidence (statistics and findings) resulting from the literature review (justification). This section should end with a sentence supporting the project purpose. The Significance and Justification section should be approximately ½ to 1 page in length. This section should begin as follows:

 

 

Significance and Justification

 

Findings from the initial literature review reveal that a lack of knowledge exists in nursing and patient care practice regarding….

 

 

6. Instructions for the Project Objectives section

 

The Project Objectives section follows the Significance and Justification section and is written in the present tense. Project objectives identify at least 3 specific outcomes (aims/goals) describing what the student hopes to accomplish by carrying out the project. All educational projects require students to 1) conduct a review of the literature exploring the background of the project topic/problem/issue; 2) develop and/or create a product such as an educational program, workshop, PowerPoint, or video, an interview schedule, questionnaire or survey, a professional brochure or pamphlet, or a handbook or resource guide; and 3) have the project product evaluated/reviewed by a panel of content experts who have extensive knowledge and expertise in the project area of focus.

Project Objectives

 

The objectives of this project are to:

 

1. Conduct an extensive review of the literature exploring (project area of interest) using the following keywords both singularly and in multiple combinations: , , . Databases searched, limited to the years to , will include AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and EBSCO Host;

 

2. Develop a (product-brochure, PowerPoint, Video, etc.); and

 

 

3. Have a panel of (5) content experts with extensive knowledge and expertise in (project area of interest) evaluate and critique the (product) for clarity, readability, applicability, quality, organization, and evidence-based clinical relevance.

 

* Throughout the body of your project proposal, when discussing your evaluation tool, make sure that the order of evaluative items matches the order as they appear in your evaluation tool.

 

7. Instructions for the Definition of Terms section

 

The Definition of Terms section follows the Project Objectives section. In this section, the Project Author presents additional theoretical and operational definitions (other than nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts) applicable to the project purpose as appropriate. Concepts found in the project Statement of Purpose should be defined. Conceptual/theoretical definitions should be discipline specific and need to reflect the theoretical framework and purpose of the project. Theoretical definitions state the meaning of a concept as it is defined or described by the theorist/theory. Theoretical definitions need to be obtained and cited from the primary source – the most current version or text of the theory. Theoretical definitions can also come from professional organizations and associations. Dictionary and Wikipedia definitions are not acceptable sources for the definition of terms. All theoretical definitions are cited in APA format from the source they are retrieved from. An operational definition is the Project Author’s definition of a theoretical concept as it specifically reflects the project purpose. At times, theoretical and operational definitions may be defined the same. If a student wishes to operationally define a term as it is theoretically defined, the student needs to cite the source the definition was retrieved from. The Definition of Terms section should be presented as follows:

 

Definition of Terms

 

The following concepts are defined both theoretically and operationally for the purpose of this project:

Health Promotion

Theoretical Definition: Behavior motivated by the desire to increase well-being and actualize human health potential. It is an approach to wellness (Pender et al., 2011, p. 45).

Operational Definition: Behaviors that promote HGH treatment delivery and adherence resulting in improved health, treatment outcomes, and better quality of life for adolescents diagnosed with HGH deficiency.

Theoretical and Operational Definition: ……

 

8. Instructions for the Limitations section

 

This section follows the Definition of Terms section. Every research study or project has limitations (problems/issues/concerns) that the Project Author experienced while conducting a study or developing a project that may be addressed or remedied in future studies/projects…there is no perfect study or project! The Limitations section informs the reader of the study or project’s problems/issues/concerns that the Project Author experienced. The Limitations section begins as follows and may include but are not limited to the following:

 

Limitations

 

The Project Author recognizes the following project limitations:

 

1. The implementation of the (product) is not within the context of this project;

 

2. The (product) is developed in the English language only and may benefit a more culturally diverse population if written in additional languages

 

 

9. Instructions for the Project Development Plan section

 

The Project Development Plan section follows the Limitations section. In this section, the student describes how they will develop their project. This section should be presented as follows:

 

Project Development Plan

 

A detailed topical outline of the (product) content is created based on the extensive review of evidence-based literature and the theoretical framework used to support and guide the development of the (product). After permission is granted from the D’Youville Patricia H.

Garman School of Nursing, graduate faculty designee (Appendix A),

(5) professionals with knowledge and expertise in (the project area of focus/field) will be asked if they are interested in voluntarily participating as an expert content reviewer for the (product).

The content expert panel will consist of one , one , one , one , and one

. If interested, the Project Author will mail a packet containing a Letter of Intent

(Appendix B), a copy of the Content Expert Project Evaluation Tool created by the Project

Author specifically for the project (Appendix C), a copy of the (product) (Appendix D), a

 

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AN EDUCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSES IN AN OUTPATIENT SETTING REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF A HEALTHY DIET FOR PATIENTS WITH OBESITY

 

By

 

 

Name….

A Project

Submitted to the Faculty of D’Youville

Division of Academic Affairs

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science in Nursing

 

Family Nurse Practitioner

Buffalo, NY

[Month Day, Year]

Copyright © 2023 by hhjjjjjjjj. All rights reserved. No part of this project may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of dtyyyyyyy , .

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PROJECT APPROVAL

Name: __ ________

Signature: ___________________________________________

Discipline: ________________Nursing________________

 

Project Defended

On

[Month Day, Year]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

Obesity has become a significant concern in the healthcare system, and diet is the key contributing factor to obesity. Therefore, a healthy diet should be the primary requirement for reducing weight and improving overall health. The health life knowledge gap among patients and limited nursing education programs contribute to this condition. Nurses should collaborate closely with patients to provide healthcare education that will assist patients in improving their nutritional habits and identify the challenges they face in maintaining a healthy diet. An educational training program for nurses regarding obesity and diet will allow nurses to advance their knowledge of the risk factors of obesity, the health conditions associated with obesity, and how to manage obesity (Seger, 2019). Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory was utilized as the theoretical framework for this project. Five content experts reviewed the educational training program for content validity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Chapter

I. PROJECT INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………… 8

Statement of Purpose ……………………………………………………………………….. 9

Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………………………. 9

Initial Review of the Literature ………………………………………………………….13

Significance and Justification ……………………………………………………………21

Project Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………21

Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………………………….. 22

Project Limitations ………………………………………………………………………… 22

Project Development Plan ………………………………………………………………. 22

Plan for Protection of Human Subjects …………………………………………….. 24

Plan for Project Evaluation……………………………………………………………… 24

Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………… 25

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE …………………………………………………………..

Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………

III. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PLAN. ……………………………………………….

Project Setting and Population… ……………………………………………………..

Content Expert Participants …………………………………………………………….. Data Collection Methods …………………………………………………………………

Project Tools …………………………………………………………………………………

The Protection of Human Subjects ………………………………………………………

Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………

IV. PROJECT EVALUATION, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS

……………………………………………..

Project Evaluation ………………………………………………………………………….

Implications for Future Practice ……………………………………………………….

Future Recommendations ………………………………………………………………..

Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………

References ……………………………………………………………………………………. 27

Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………… 32

List of Appendices

Appendix

A D’Youville Patricia H. Garman School of Nursing Full Approval Letter

…………………….….

B Letter of Intent …………………………………………………………………………………….

C Evaluation Tool …………………………………………………………………………………..

D Educational Training Program …………………………………………………………

E Survey tool results in graph……………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter I

The age of fast food and instant gratification brought about by the growth of technology has affected the general population in many ways. In America, obesity is becoming problematic, with a prevalence estimate of 41% leading to risk in the severity of diseases (Kalligeros et al., 2020). As a result, there is a need for nursing practice to take accountability in developing a relationship with collaborative patient care. Obesity can be a lifestyle disease. Therefore, all stakeholder participation must be considered a need to look at the four-metaparadigm perspectives in caregiving using a foundational basis in a theoretical framework. First, a nurse needs expertise in addressing health issues, especially those reversible through natural means, for example, obesity. Obesity is reversible through natural means, including dietary modification and practicing fasting (Balani et al., 2019).

One of the main factors that make successful result in patient with obesity is reversal patient recovery program which includes proper planning. Proper planning allows for allocating adequate time and resources toward the project, resulting in the successful implementation of the program (Shi, 2017). Another factor is incorporating experienced project managers with knowledge about the program. For example, specialists such as nutritionists and experts in physical activity and breastfeeding are essential when developing a program to improve nutrition in children and adults and minimize obesity. Finally, it is essential to practice monitoring and control for a program to succeed. Regular evaluation of the progress and the program results allows for modification and alignment in case of an error or a potential error—effective communication results in a program’s success (Ross et al., 2019).

 

The success of any nursing program to facilitate proper education on patient-centered care should have ways to effect cultural change. As such, education plays a significant role in making people adopt healthy habits. Education is well achievable after evaluating the clients through wellness programs and other community programs that involve health checkups and screening. However, personal barriers such as individual change resistance may negatively impact the success of the social change (Allan, 2020). Some people are susceptible to changes they perceive as threats to their social environment, including the workplace. Individuals may develop resistance to change when they feel uncertain about the intervention or when the change comes as a surprise without the time to prepare mentally. The questions about the competency of the intervention concerning the new environment—the resistance results in difficulty in implementing the intervention to achieve social change (Ross et al., 2019). This study will assess interpersonal relations in nursing theory to draw mechanisms for developing effective strategies for an educational plan for nurses taking care of patients with obesity in an outpatient department. Evidently, the discussions on obesity and mechanisms for reversing obesity point out that there is a need for patient focused education on healthy diet for patients with obesity.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this project is to develop an educational training program for nurses in an outpatient setting regarding the importance of a healthy diet for patients with obesity.

Theoretical Framework

Hildegard Peplau’s (1991) Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory is utilized as the theoretical framework for developing this project. A brief overview of the theory is presented as well as a discussion regarding how the theory was utilized to guide the development of the project. In addition, Peplau’s (1991) theoretical definitions for nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts (nursing, health, person, and environment) as well as the Project Author’s operational definitions for nursing’s four metaparadigm concepts will be presented.

Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory

Hildegard E. Peplau’s impact on nursing and patient care is reflected in her development and establishment of the Interpersonal Relations Theory. Her theory development began with questions of the philosophical underpinning of psychology as fundamental in-patient care especially when it came to nursing and patient relationships (Peplau, 1991). According to Peplau (1991), the development of patient care begins by understanding the foundational elements as concepts of nursing care. namely, the orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution defined. In her book, Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, the theory emphasizes the importance of crosscutting issues and their effect on nursing care and patient wellness, such as nursing education on dietary interventions for patients with obesity. Orientation refers to the reaction of the patient and the difference from one to another with consideration to resolve in treatment difficulty. Exploitation on the other hand is the ability of the patient to recognize interpersonal relationships and use the services offered effectively. Lastly, there is a resolution that refers to the relinquishing of ties in the relationship as the patient utilizes the lesson learned to better manage their health (Peplau, 1991).

As a mother of nursing psychiatry, Peplau (1991) describes interpersonal relations as a conditional aspect that includes first the interaction of the nurse and patient. She points out that this is attained when understanding each patient’s condition is an experience that allows for improving nursing care (Peplau, 1991). Therefore, the focus in the definition of the theory begins with grasping the nurse and patient metaparadigm concepts as the interaction between patient and nurse makes the relationship personal. Similarly, considerable insights thus point out that the patient care process is personalized in a way that responsibility is both technical and emotional. Peplau (1991) explains that effective patient outcome delivery comes from trust in diagnostics and thus acceptance of health as an essential metaparadigm aspect. The theory focuses on developing the relationship between a nurse and a patient to emphasize trust and collaboration.

Based on Peplau (1991), the experience of establishing a connection between a nurse and a patient is an indicator of progress reporting and is the only source of data for patient experience information. Perception of the phenomena of patient information as instrumental to positive is highlighted as a primary measure of the direction of health. Based on the fact that health is described to be only a success when it moves in the positive direction, by looking at the patient with obesity this means loss of weight. At the same time, with the insistence on the sustainability of better health as the result being sought, there is direct evidence that the management of health, in the long run, is the better outcome for the patient in this project.

Peplau (1991) is supported by her in-depth analysis of the achievability of better health through utilitarian task alignment. Using communication as the necessary tool for the nurse to ensure that a patient attains a favorable outcome, as a theory, Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory emphasizes the built-in interaction as a psychodynamic need. This need is important as it is directionally focused on relieving the patient’s anxiety and improving their confidence regardless of external and self-perceived variables. Centralization of goal setting for a patient with obesity is linked directly to the strengthening of the nurse-patient relationship as the best approach to attaining better health outcomes.

This theory is a perfect fit for this project as the relationship between the nurse and patient must be founded on trust so that information can be shared comfortably and with trusted support from nurses. A support system must be developed because obesity and the issues surrounding obesity may lead to decreased self-esteem and mental health issues. This theorist ideology will assist in identifying and orienting nurses to the causes of obesity, introducing a perfectly balanced diet with regular exercise, and finally producing solutions for diabetic prevention, a foundation that this theoretical framework supports.

Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory and Nursing’s Metaparadigm

Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory explains it as an input for developing positive outcomes and relinquishing the relationship with a support system that enhances positive outcomes Peplau (1991) . It is the promotion of health through appropriate methods and illness prevention by recognizing triggers for all patients. Therefore, the nurse can only facilitate treatment and not make a diagnosis; hence, the critical aspect is ensuring that the environment is conducive and that communication in the relationship with patients is constant. This means the nurse favors patients’ understanding of their issues by explaining the problem and the treatment plan. This includes a preventive measure to ensure informed decision-making is enhanced and thus a partnership that, in essence, is therapeutic.

Peplau (1991) defines a person as the receiver of nursing care whose needs should be assessed all-round and catered for accordingly. Peplau (1991) defines environment as the surroundings of the patient which influences their bearing of health and wellness. Peplau (1991) defines health as the multidimensional extent to which a person attains wellness for a qualitative life.

For the purpose of this project, a nurse is a supporter who ensures that patient needs are unique and met adequately and suitably to their circumstance. This recognizes that a different relationship develops between nurse and patient from one. In the same stance, a person is operationally defined as an entity with individual preconceptions and a mutual understanding of the nature of a medical issue. Within this understanding, they can collaborate with informed decision-making toward a productive solution.

For the purpose of this project, health is operationally defined as contextualized patient conditions that allow for human processes that facilitate tendencies supportive of positive development to attain health (Peplau, 1991). For this project, health is defined as a symbolic future positive goal that is attained after effective healthcare hence instrumental for the person moving in the forward direction of wellbeing.

For the purpose of this project, a patient is operationally defined by Peplau (1991) as a person in need who develops a relationship with a nurse to seek adequate support suitable for the promotion of better health. For this project, the patient is referred to as the outpatient navigating the interpersonal relationships with a medical service provider seeking the implementation of need-based healthcare delivery through the respectable promotion of perception and prevention of escalation of obesity (Peplau, 1991).

For the purpose of this project, operationally defines environment as the unique position of the patient leading to the development of a different relationship with the nurse and health-related delivery in a way that affects the success rate of their health promotion. For this project, the environment will be operationally defined as conditions that allow for human processes that facilitate tendencies supportive of positive development to attain health. It is contextualized as the symbolic future positive goal that is attained after effective healthcare hence instrumental for the person moving in the forward direction of well-being (Peplau, 1991). As such, following Peplau’s underpinning of outpatient care for obese patients is ensuring that patient that individual preconceptions and mutual understanding of the nature of a medical issue allow for better collaboration toward a productive solution.

Initial Review of the Literature

The review of the literature will be conducted to explore studies that are associated with nursing education for obesity and a healthy diet. Using the following words both singularly and in multiple combinations: nursing training, obesity, outpatient care, nursing psychiatry, overweight, diet, obesity facts, obesity prevention, body weight, and care management planning. Databases searched, limited to the years 2018 to 2023, will include AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCO, Medical Journal sites for nursing care, nursing training, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Directory of Open Access Journals, Google Scholar, and JSTOR and the D’Youville library to loan articles through interlibrary loan. The search is limited to the years 2018 to 2023 to ensure that current evidence-based literature is reviewed and summarized for the purpose this project. A summary of the review of the literature is presented.

Dynamics of Outpatient Care

According to Balani et al., (2019) The epidemic of obesity is a significant health crisis that continues to increase globally, it is reported that in the United States, more than two-thirds of adults are considered either overweight or obese. A lifestyle disease is critical to the discussion on nursing care for outpatient obesity. As such, care focuses on management and fostering better and healthy weight maintenance (Kalligeros et al., 2020). Thus, it does not necessarily focus on age but understands that eagerness is also a risk factor for comorbidities associated with being overweight. Furthermore, Kalligeros et al. (2020) study points out that the exploration of the association between obesity and chronic diseases is something that should be understood. This is because there is a direct relation between the severity of the outcomes seen in intensive care units and admission rates. For example, research that analyzes a retrospective cohort with 103 patients found that the patients admitted to the hospital history of heart disease is a direct result of obesity. Therefore, a recommendation is that vigilance should be given to treating patients with obesity starting from the outpatient setting, alluding to necessitated prevention of escalation when faced with other conditions (Kalligeros et al., 2020).

Role of Nursing

The role of nursing is to provide integrated care and enhance patient comfort by providing interventions to alleviate symptoms of obesity. Findings from Rezaei et al. (2022) study point out that high morbidity rates are caused by poor health maintenance, which aligns with the results in studies by Smith et al. 2020; Sutaria et al., 2020. Furthermore, Gadde et al. (2018) study findings indicate a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality rates among patients in weight maintenance trials. The high number of obesity cases creates a risk factor in the population; this points to the need to emphasize training for this. Recognizing physician efforts in collaboration with outpatients by sensitization on environmental awareness is essential (Walia et al., 2022). This includes considering that proper evaluation starts by recognizing the appropriateness of the environment for supporting weight management. Achieving and maintaining weight loss or gain requires physician-patient collaboration in a way that can be facilitated by nurses providing pertinent information. Again, support and motivation are also determined by letting a carefully defined plan be identified with the patient to understand the expected health outcomes. This is the nurse’s work as it allows for the recognition of a strategy of control for each patient (Stonerock & Blumenthal, 2017, p.1457).

According to Rezaei et al. (2022), the combination of aspects such as the cost of health, care expenditures, and hospitalization risks are some of the reasons that can be used in motivating outpatients to adhere to their plan of losing weight. This study aligns with the findings of Piché et al. (2020) study findings. The findings indicate that advanced heart diseases are often caused by obesity and lack of maintenance, and the determinant of failure lies in the early handling of the issue. Therefore, health literacy is an integral part of the nursing fraternity to impart to the patients as it allows for the opportunity to understand the implication of obesity in the long run. Consequently, the narrative is applicable because by the time medication is involved, the progression will be higher risk associated and thus significant mortality risk, however, creating a provider-patient relationship with a healthy diet, diabetes and obesity teaching without having a judgmental response, whereby both parties agrees on goals, share a vision of improvement in general metabolic health status, the patient and provider will be able to create a personalized and participatory lifestyle changes plan as described by Foley et al. (2019) study. Furthermore, Alexander et al. (2021) study findings indicate that health literacy as part of outpatient training will provide the necessary support for proper weight loss and maintain it while allowing room for recognition of mental health too. This caters to the grasping of the incorporation of strategies that align outcomes centered on the totality of patient care within the six sigma of quality improvement in healthcare delivery.

Alexander et al. (2021) research focuses on promoting healthcare delivery as a focal point in preventive care and is supported by Levine et al. (2019), which look at a similar issue but with a different approach. Levine et al. (2019) surveyed to find out why the use of preventive healthcare is still low in the modern healthcare system. The findings from the survey linked modernization and the advancement in technology as one the contributors to the limited use of preventive medicine. Nevertheless, Harris et al. (2017) points out how using preventive healthcare would enhance the efficiency of care and result in better outcomes. Therefore, Alexander et al., 2021; Levine et al., 2019; Harris et al., 2017 studies collectively look at transitioning patients from outpatient to inpatient and provide insight into what to avoid and what is necessary to promote better care. From the start, the studies allow room for relativity in practices that promote and optimize safety, and within those points to the relevance of individual patient circumstances. While the project gives valuable information on the standard procedure, it contributes to the general discussion on the improvement of health by nurses. It thus applies that, for all patients, recognition of the value in situation background assessment facilitates the improvement of health outcomes. The improvement starts with a reduction in risks hence understanding beneficial outcomes accurately first (Alexander et al., 2021).

Recognition of Potential Barriers

There is also a need to recognize the impact of cultural competency in nursing care (Chae & Park, 2019). With outpatients, there is a risk of exposure to external biases and pressure that may result in declining health whenever they leave a session. Therefore, the value must be provided in educating the patient on the potential risks they face within their environment. This can only be achieved through collaboration which aligns with the results of Seger’s (2019) and Ogbolu et al. (2018) studies. Furthermore, it is essential for the perspective of the community and support system of the patient to be observed by the patient (Bloor & McIntosh, 2019).

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