Skills for Addressing Gender Issues|Homework help

Posted: January 29th, 2023


Techniques Summaries: Chapter 3, Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 (ATTACHED)

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These assessments are designed to help you become an active learner through consistent immersion in the concepts taught in this course. I want you to write professionally in the 3rd person, such as “Reflective listening is a technique that involves”…. no use of 1st person.  I predict that you will learn about yourself as you learn the course content. Length: 3 pages double-spaced 12-point Times New Roman font). If you use references, use APA style.

Here is the format:







Skills for Addressing Gender Issues”

Every helper needs to have the skills of the reflective practitioner that we talked about in Chapter 1. If you recall from that discussion, using your skills as a reflective practitioner is important when differences between helper and client produce misunderstandings. Reflection is the process of identifying a puzzling issue and looking at it from different angles. How can we use reflection to help deal with gender issues? Assumptions about gender are so deeply ingrained that it is difficult to get free of them. Have you thought about how you will react to a transgender, gay, or lesbian client? Using a journal, participating in group discussions, and consulting a supervisor are all reflective ways of getting to a point of view that is broader than your own. In addition to reflection, here are some general strategies and skills that helpers can develop to avoid gender becoming a wall between them and their clients:

Address gender in the assessment process. Understand the importance the client places on gender identity. Be familiar with the terms that gender minority clients use to describe their gender identity and sexual orientation.

Be willing to discuss gender issues that surface in client/helper interactions and misunderstandings. Utilize supervision to discover your attitudes about a client that may be the result of your own gender socialization.

Be particularly aware of how gender affects attitudes about family roles and family violence (Anderson, 1997; Nayak, Byrne, Martin, & Abraham, 2003). Gender bias in career expectations is a major issue that can potentially stunt an individual’s development (Kerka, 1999).

Just as cultural groups tend to stereotype outsiders, the same generalizations arise when we talk about differences between men and women and sexual and gender minorities. These stereotypes can affect how we diagnose a person and how much weight we give symptoms (Lopez, Grover, Holland, & Johnson, 1989). Recognize that clinicians may hold gender stereotypes about what defines a mentally healthy man and a mentally healthy woman (Gold & Hawley, 2001). We may automatically pathologize a man who cries at work and a woman who is a strong leader.

Most of the male/female contrasts we are faced with are those of perception rather than real divisions in behavior. For example, there appears to be no plausible evidence of variability in how men and women express and react to emotions (Wester, Vogel, & Pressly, 2002). Despite this, it is a common belief that women are more emotional and men less so. Popular books such as Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (Gray, 1992) may reinforce these stereotypes. Again, the lesson is to understand your client as a unique individual shaped by cultural forces.”

Nonverbal Communication Between Helper and Client

Nonverbal communication is also called body language. We generally talk about seven nonverbal ways that we speak to others without words: eye contact, body position, silence, voice tone, facial expressions and gestures, physical distance, and touching (Finset & Del Piccolo, 2011; Gladstein, 1974). Mehrabian (1972) said that as much as 80% of communication takes place on the nonverbal level. It has been estimated that only 7% of emotions are conveyed by verbal means, whereas 38% are conveyed by the voice and 55% by the face. These percentages vary considerably in different contexts, but Argyle and colleagues (1971) concluded that nonverbal messages were taken to be 12.5 times stronger than verbal messages when conveying friendliness or hostility.

Nonverbal messages can be compared to the musical score in a movie. They can affect us tremendously, but we may not notice their presence. For example, researchers studying couples communication were at first confused when they examined written transcripts of troubled marriages. Everything appeared normal. It was not until they watched the videos that they were able to see the subtle nonverbal signals of contempt such as rolling of the eyes. Even very minor movements and expressions can set off an argument. For example, a raised eyebrow takes only a sixth of a second, but it can be detected at distances of over 150 feet (Blum, 1998). When strong emotions are being expressed, nonverbal messages may be more significant than what the person is saying (Aviezer, Trope, & Todorov, 2012; Fiquer et al., 2018). This is probably why when we send text messages, we feel the need for emojis. The text does not fully convey how we are feeling, and misunderstandings can ensue.

Besides conveying information and emotions, nonverbal behavior has three other functions in human interaction. Nonverbal signals regulate the interaction (indicating pauses and stopping points), can enhance intimacy, and can be persuasive (cf. Argyle, 1987). Let us look at each of these functions.


Occasionally, we are required to interact with others without having access to all the nonverbal cues that the person is sending. Have you ever participated in a conference call on the telephone? In face-to-face conversations, cues about when to speak and when to listen are communicated nonverbally. Without access to these regulators, everyone talks at once or there are long periods of silence.


For example, we might prefer e-mail from family members if we are merely exchanging information, but when we want to hear their voices to feel close to them, we use FaceTime or Skype to get access to their nonverbal messages. Think about the difference between sending a sympathy card and placing your arm around the shoulder of a grieving friend. To increase intimacy, we increase proximity and use touch.


Nonverbal communication is also a powerful component of persuasion. The gestures and voice tone of famous orators such as Martin Luther King Jr. are evidence of this. The most persuasive communication takes place when we can see another person’s face and when we are in the same room. It is much easier to say no to the salesperson on the phone than to the one who is standing right in front of you. The art of helping also relies on persuasive nonverbal messages to encourage the client to open up. Helpers use specific nonverbal behaviors and project warmth to persuade their clients that they are listening nonjudgmentally and that the client is in a safe environment. Your willingness to take the time to provide the most inviting nonverbal atmosphere will affect your client’s perception of you and willingness to open up.”


Chapter 3: Active Listening
Active listening is a technique that involves paying full attention to the speaker and understanding their message, rather than just hearing the words they are saying. This technique is important in effective communication, as it helps to ensure that the listener is truly understanding what the speaker is trying to convey. One way to practice active listening is by using reflective listening, which involves paraphrasing and reflecting back what the speaker has said in order to confirm understanding. Additionally, active listening can be improved by avoiding distractions, making eye contact, and asking questions to clarify any confusion.

Chapter 4: Empathy
Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. It is an important aspect of effective communication, as it allows the listener to understand the speaker’s perspective and respond in a way that is appropriate and supportive. There are several techniques that can be used to improve empathy, including perspective-taking, which involves trying to understand the other person’s point of view, and active listening, which allows the listener to fully understand the speaker’s message. Additionally, empathic listening, which involves not only understanding the speaker’s words but also their emotions, can be a powerful tool in building trust and rapport with others.

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