Human Development |Quick homework help

Posted: February 13th, 2023

Read the Chapters (ATTACHED) then respond regarding the content of each Chapter as you would in a face-to-face class. State your point of view.

Please don’t summarize the reading.  Try to make this an interaction like one that would occur in a live classroom.

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Length should be at least approximately 300 words per Chapter for full credit.

Chapter 6: Emotional and Social Development in the Infancy and Toddlerhood Years Chapter Review Book Title: An Advanced Lifespan Odyssey for Counseling Professionals Printed By: Dwight Woods ( © 2017 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning

Chapter Review


A parent is the earliest nurturer of the infant’s emotional intelligence, the ability to successfully navigate the emotional brain/thinking brain system. An infant within the first year generates the primary emotions of happiness, anger, sadness, fear, surprise, interest, and disgust, using crying, gestures, and movements to convey them. Toddlers begin to recognize secondary emotions, first self-conscious emotions and later self-evaluative emotions. An infant’s culture plays a prominent role in how emotions are conceptualized and shown. An infant from a collectivistic culture will likely learn to mask emotions and place more emotional energy on the outcome of a negative event, whereas an infant from an individualistic culture will likely be shaped to express emotions freely and place more emotional energy on who was responsible for causing a negative event.

Freud and Erikson held contrasting views regarding emotional development. Freud believed that one’s personality and emotional development are determined in early childhood, based on how well the parent was able to balance the child’s basic needs without over- or under- gratifying them. For Erikson, the development of the personality and emotions is a lifelong, continuous process that he called a cradle-to-grave approach. Freud and Erikson both designed stage models of development; however, Freud’s stages are psychosexual in nature, while Erikson’s are psychosocial.

Attachment is the mutual, sustainable bond that forms between the infant and parent, and the type of attachment depends on how well the parent helps the infant to reduce her distress. A parent who consistently provides a stable relationship for the infant, one in which the parent responds to her needs and signals for comfort during times of distress, with close contact and loving touch, will teach the infant’s brain to balance the quick, emotional responses of her amygdala with the more mindful, decision-making responses of the neocortex. Securely attached children learn to regulate their own levels of cortisol because they feel confident that they can manage distressing life situations.

Psychoanalysts viewed the infant’s attachment as originating from the mother’s ability to satisfy the infant’s basic drive for food during the oral stage of psychosexual development, after which the infant directs emotional energy from the food to the mother, a process known as cathexis. However, Bowlby’s theory of attachment, which diverged radically from the psychoanalytic explanation, held that infants are innately predisposed to form attachments and will attach most securely to parents who best respond to signals of distress. Bowlby created a four-phase model for the development of infant–parent attachments. Ainsworth, a colleague of Bowlby, developed an experimental procedure called the “strange situation” to

assess the security of attachments in children 10–24 months old. Ainsworth and her research colleagues identified three patterns of attachment: secure attachment, and two types of insecure attachment [avoidant and ambivalent (resistant) attachment]. Main and Solomon later identified a fourth, and least secure, pattern of attachment known as disorganized-disoriented attachment. Infants and toddlers are able to form secure attachments with people in addition to the mother and father (such as siblings, grandparents, and professional caregivers) as long as those individuals provide a consistently stable relationship. Cultures differ in how a securely attached child is defined. Whereas American or German parents may view an independent child as one who is securely attached, a Japanese parent is more likely to consider a securely attached child as one who is obedient and compliant.

Temperament is a newborn brain’s biological predisposition to interpret and respond to stimulation. Although temperament has a biological basis and tends to remain stable across the lifespan, the child’s experiences and parental intervention are dominant influences in shaping the child’s temperament. Thomas and Chess conducted a longitudinal study of infant and childhood temperament, identifying factors of temperament including activity level, approach or withdrawal to stimuli, adaptability, and attention span. Kagan’s research on the differences in brain activity among children who were timid, bold, upbeat, and melancholy, based on inborn differences in brain circuitry, demonstrates the stability of temperament over time. An inhibited temperament can be detected in infants: If left untreated, the child is likely to develop shyness, social anxiety, and depression. However, parents and counselors can help to reform the neural circuitry with gentle and consistent challenges for the child to face. Temperament can be measured using surveys, questionnaires, and interviews. When a child’s temperament and the parent’s style of parenting match, this relationship is known as goodness of fit.

An infant or toddler who shows developmental delays in socialization and communication may be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents can receive early interventions for their child, such as physical and behavioral therapy, and specialized educational programs, as well as support services for themselves.

Rochat’s levels of self-awareness chart the increasing ability to differentiate the self as a unique being from all others. A newborn shows implicit self-awareness by distinguishing another person touching her cheek from her own hand touching her cheek. This native ability to self-differentiate matures steadily, so that the 18-month-old toddler can demonstrate explicit self-awareness during the classic rouge experiment. Around age 2 the infant is using the first person pronouns to self-identify.

The capacity to practice effortful control, stifling one’s dominant response to a stimulus in favor of expressing a subdominant response, detecting errors, and engaging in planning, can be observed in a toddler by the end of the first year. This extremely important skill requires the toddler to engage physical, cognitive, emotional, and social abilities, as the infant must redirect cognitions and behaviors to those that would not have instinctively been a first choice but are required by culture to stay safe or to follow socially accepted practices.

Children who have difficulty practicing effortful control have problems self-regulating, finding it challenging to control their reactions to stress, keep their attention focused, and decode their own and others’ mental states. Early nurturing experiences, especially parenting style, correlate strongly with a child’s well-developed ability for effortful control.

On the path of social development, infants and toddlers use social referencing, interpreting the facial and/or verbal emotional expressions of people they trust to make decisions about ambiguous events, such as whether to cross a visual cliff or touch a new toy. Although previous studies have placed the emergence of this important skill between 7 and 9 months, recent research indicates that infants as young as 3 months may use social referencing.

Parents and the larger culture help to socialize infants’ and toddlers’ emotions by providing continual feedback about how to join the fabric of their society. The brain of a child whose psychic script includes the regular practice of effortful control will activate empathy and guilt appropriately, helping the child to skillfully interact with others. While infants and young toddlers often play alone or with parents, by age 2 many toddlers engage in interactive play with other children, allowing them to practice taking others’ points of view. Children who have difficulty gaining peer group acceptance because of deficits in skillful social interaction may benefit from specialized coaching interventions.

The addition of the newborn to the family requires all members to adjust their sense of identity, roles, and expectations. Aside from engaging in the continual care and affection required to nurture a newborn, parents who co-parent also navigate the dual roles of parent and partner, often making relational, financial, logistical, and employment changes. Siblings find themselves reorganizing their idea of where they fit in the family life cycle, and their responses can range from jealousy and confusion to bonding and caregiving. Grandparents have a unique opportunity to foster the development of the next generation.

The odyssey from birth to age 3 is a significant journey for all travelers involved: infants, toddlers, parents, family members, and counselors. For the infants and toddlers, how amazing it must be to embark at birth, and three years later be a person who is virtually indistinguishable in form, size, ability, communication style, and thought process from where one began. While the toddler’s temperament may endure if not reshaped by specific intervention, the contextual elements of genetics, environment, stimulation, and relationships provide the raw materials for each child’s brain to craft itself into a wholly unique being. For parents, there is no precisely laid-out treasure map to follow, as each child is wired differently and responds distinctively. However, we do know that optimal development emerges from a closely attached, relationship-dependent

Chapter 7: The Preschool Years: Early Childhood Physical and Cognitive Development Chapter Review Book Title: An Advanced Lifespan Odyssey for Counseling Professionals Printed By: Dwight Woods ( © 2017 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning

Chapter Review


During the preschool years, children continue to grow, but in spurts rather than a continuous growth trajectory. Normal weight and height ranges are broad to accommodate the considerable variability of individual growth rates found among preschool children. The brain grows rapidly during the early childhood years, and it has plasticity that can allow for adaptation and adjustment following brain injury.

The development of large and small motor skills is very important during the preschool years, and lack of appropriate development can hinder cognitive and social growth. Children should be encouraged to play and engage in large motor activities. This is particularly important due to the tendency toward sedentary activity in U.S. society. Small motor skills include using scissors, buttoning, drawing, and writing. The development of small motor skills is vital to the long-term academic success of the young child.

Minor illnesses are common in preschool children. It is very important for children to adhere to an immunization schedule for their own health and to avoid the emergence of more dangerous diseases. Children from lower SES strata have a lower rate of immunization due to lack of access to health care and lack of funds; they are also more likely to have dental decay or caries, which is a preventable disease. Again, lack of funds and access to dental care are major contributing factors. The most alarming health problem among young children is the rising rate of obesity. Better education for families on health and exercise is suggested to counteract the obesity trend. The most common cause of death in early childhood is unintentional injury; education about home safety can provide injury prevention.

Vision and hearing impairment create academic and social problems for children, and screening to identify these impairments is crucial. Preschool children may also experience sleep problems. Having a routine and security items can help children form good sleep habits. It is not uncommon for young children to experience nightmares and night terrors, especially during times of stress. In many families, co-sleeping is practiced. While there are people who argue against co-sleeping, there is little evidence that it is emotionally harmful, and it is a norm for many cultures.

Both Piaget and Vygotsky had an immense impact on preschool education. Most preschool aged children are in Piaget’s preoperational stage, which includes two substages: preconceptual and intuitive. Piaget viewed learning as occurring thorough a process of assimilation and accommodation whereby new information is either aligned with an existing schema or adapted into a new schema. Preoperational children are egocentric in their worldview. Vygotsky’s contribution to the field of cognitive development was relatively

unheard of in the West until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Vygotsky’s concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding are widely used in preschools.

Information processing is the mechanism by which we attain and store knowledge. The information processing model includes the sensory register, working memory, and long-term memory. Another aspect of cognitive development is language. Children must master the components of language and the rules of grammar during the preschool years. Language and literacy skills are crucial for education, and early childhood education forms the foundation for future academic success and is vital for long-term achievement.

Chapter 7: The Preschool Years: Early Childhood Physical and Cognitive Development Chapter Review Book Title: An Advanced Lifespan Odyssey for Counseling Professionals Printed By: Dwight Woods ( © 2017 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning

© 2023 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may by reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the copyright holder.


emotions and that their parent will be there to support them. In contrast, children who do not experience secure attachment may struggle with regulating their emotions and may have difficulties with relationships later in life.

Emotional intelligence can be developed and strengthened through various strategies and activities, such as mindfulness, emotional regulation, empathy, and social skills training. Parents and caregivers can support this development by being attuned to the child’s emotions, providing a safe and supportive environment, and teaching coping skills to manage and regulate emotions. Emotional intelligence is a critical component of overall well-being and success in life and the development of emotional intelligence begins in early childhood with the support and guidance of the parent.

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