Carbohydrates Catabolism|Course hero helper

Posted: February 14th, 2023

Living things convert stored energy found in nutrients to ATP molecules needed for the cell’s various functions.

Write about tracking down the catabolism of a glucose molecule to produce ATPs in the presence of oxygen. In other words, give an account of the significant metabolic steps of cellular respiration.

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Guidelines:

  • Use APA guidelines for proper citations.
  • minimum words: 500

SOLUTION

Cellular respiration is a complex metabolic process that involves the breakdown of glucose molecules to produce ATP. The process consists of three main stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.

In glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecules, with the net production of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules. This process occurs in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen.

The pyruvate molecules then enter the mitochondrial matrix where they are converted into acetyl CoA. This process involves the removal of a carbon atom and the production of carbon dioxide, as well as the reduction of NAD+ to NADH.

In the citric acid cycle, the acetyl CoA molecules are further broken down, producing additional NADH and FADH2 molecules, as well as ATP and carbon dioxide. The cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

Finally, in the electron transport chain, the NADH and FADH2 molecules produced in the previous stages donate their electrons to a series of protein complexes, leading to the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The movement of protons down this gradient powers the synthesis of ATP via ATP synthase.

Overall, the catabolism of a glucose molecule to produce ATP involves a complex series of metabolic steps that are tightly regulated and coordinated. The presence of oxygen allows for the efficient production of ATP via the electron transport chain, but other metabolic pathways can also be used in the absence of oxygen.

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