Adolescent With Diabetes Mellitus (DM)|Course hero helper

Posted: February 19th, 2023

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Adolescent With Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Case Studies

The patient, a 16-year-old high-school football player, was brought to the emergency room in a

coma. His mother said that during the past month he had lost 12 pounds and experienced

excessive thirst associated with voluminous urination that often required voiding several times

during the night. There was a strong family history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The results of

physical examination were essentially negative except for sinus tachycardia and Kussmaul

respirations.

Studies Results

Serum glucose test (on admission), p. 227 1100 mg/dL (normal: 60–120 mg/dL)

Arterial blood gases (ABGs) test (on admission),

p. 98

pH 7.23 (normal: 7.35–7.45)

PCO2 30 mm Hg (normal: 35–45 mm Hg)

HCO2 12 mEq/L (normal: 22–26 mEq/L)

Serum osmolality test, p. 339 440 mOsm/kg (normal: 275–300

mOsm/kg)

Serum glucose test, p. 227 250 mg/dL (normal: 70–115 mg/dL)

2-hour postprandial glucose test (2-hour PPG), p.

230

500 mg/dL (normal: <140 mg/dL)

Glucose tolerance test (GTT), p. 234

Fasting blood glucose 150 mg/dL (normal: 70–115 mg/dL)

30 minutes 300 mg/dL (normal: <200 mg/dL)

1 hour 325 mg/dL (normal: <200 mg/dL)

2 hours 390 mg/dL (normal: <140 mg/dL)

3 hours 300 mg/dL (normal: 70–115 mg/dL)

4 hours 260 mg/dL (normal: 70–115 mg/dL)

Glycosylated hemoglobin, p. 238 9% (normal: <7%)

Diabetes mellitus autoantibody panel, p. 186

insulin autoantibody Positive titer >1/80

islet cell antibody Positive titer >1/120

glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody Positive titer >1/60

Microalbumin, p. 872 <20 mg/L

Diagnostic Analysis

The patient’s symptoms and diagnostic studies were classic for hyperglycemic ketoacidosis

associated with DM. The glycosylated hemoglobin showed that he had been hyperglycemic over

the last several months. The results of his arterial blood gases (ABGs) test on admission

indicated metabolic acidosis with some respiratory compensation. He was treated in the

Case Studies

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2

emergency room with IV regular insulin and IV fluids; however, before he received any insulin

levels, insulin antibodies were obtained and were positive, indicating a degree of insulin

resistance. His microalbumin was normal, indicating no evidence of diabetic renal disease, often

a late complication of diabetes.

During the first 72 hours of hospitalization, the patient was monitored with frequent serum

glucose determinations. Insulin was administered according to the results of these studies. His

condition was eventually stabilized on 40 units of Humulin N insulin daily. He was converted to

an insulin pump and did very well with that. Comprehensive patient instruction regarding self-

blood glucose monitoring, insulin administration, diet, exercise, foot care, and recognition of the

signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia was given.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. Why was this patient in metabolic acidosis?

2. Do you think the patient will eventually be switched to an oral hypoglycemic agent?

3. How would you anticipate this life changing diagnosis is going to affect your patient

according to his age and sex?

4. The parents of your patient seem to be confused and not knowing what to do with this

diagnoses. What would you recommend to them?

 

SOLUTION

breathing. Laboratory studies revealed hyperglycemia, ketonemia, and glycosuria, confirming the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM).

  1. What type of diabetes does the patient most likely have?

The patient most likely has type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to a deficiency of insulin production. The patient’s symptoms of weight loss, excessive thirst, and frequent urination are consistent with the classic triad of symptoms of type 1 DM. Additionally, the presence of hyperglycemia, ketonemia, and glycosuria, as shown by laboratory studies, are indicative of uncontrolled diabetes, which is typical in type 1 DM.

  1. What is Kussmaul breathing, and why is it present in this patient?

Kussmaul breathing is a type of deep, rapid breathing characterized by increased tidal volume and respiratory rate. It is a compensatory mechanism that the body uses to correct metabolic acidosis, a condition in which there is an accumulation of acids in the blood, as seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. In this patient, Kussmaul breathing is present because of the metabolic acidosis resulting from

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