develop a range of innovative urban planning strategies.|Course hero helper

Posted: February 26th, 2023

All reflection discussions must be 1-2 pages (approx. 500 words) and use APA citation style.

  1. Provide citations for 2 readings (APA citation style)
  2. Provide a summary for each reading
  3. Discuss the major theme(s) or argument(s) of each reading
  4. In 1-2 paragraphs, discuss your thoughts on the readings and how they connect to the week’s lesson.

    Yale Environment 360

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    Can We Turn Down the Temperature on Urban Heat Islands? Using citizen science volunteers, researchers are more accurately measuring temperature differences between city hot spots and their cooler surroundings. With heat waves intensifying, the results are now being used to

    develop a range of innovative urban planning strategies.

    BY J IM  MORRISON • SEPTEMBER   1 2 ,  201 9

    he volunteers fanned out across cities from Boston to Honolulu this summer, with

    inexpensive thermal monitors resembling tiny periscopes attached to their vehicles to

    collect data on street-level temperatures. Signs on their cars announcing “Science Project in

    Progress” explained their plodding pace — no more than 30 miles-per-hour to capture the dramatic

    temperature differences from tree-shaded parks to sun-baked parking lots to skyscraper-dominated

    downtowns.

    �e work of these citizen scientists is part of a new way of studying the urban heat island effect, with

    volunteers mapping two dozen cities worldwide in recent years. Past studies of urban heat islands — in

    which metropolitan areas experience significantly higher temperatures than their surroundings — have

    relied on satellite data that measures the temperature reflected off rooftops and streets. But Vivek

    Shandas, a professor of urban studies and planning at Portland State University in Oregon and a

    researcher leading the project, says the urban heat island effect is more complicated and subtler than

    satellite data indicates.

    “�ere’s much more nuance within the city,” Shandas says. “What we’re finding is that there’s upwards

    of 15- to 20-degree Fahrenheit differences within a city. In fact, a city could have the same temperature

    reading in one area as its rural or forested counterpart.”

    On-the-ground data clearly demonstrate a correlation between lower-income neighborhoods and higher temperatures.

    A Chicago resident struggles with triple-digit temperatures during a heat wave in 2012. AP PHOTO/M. SPENCER GREEN

     

     

    12/23/2020 Can We Turn Down the Temperature on Urban Heat Islands? – Yale E360

    https://e360.yale.edu/features/can-we-turn-down-the-temperature-on-urban-heat-islands 2/6

    ALSO ON YALE E360

    From high above, a new way of seeing our

    urban planet. Read more.

    By understanding in detail where hot spots are located, cities can address extreme heat neighborhood-

    by-neighborhood, choosing from a variety of strategies that include removing or whitewashing black

    asphalt or roof surfaces, adding more trees for shade, requiring developers to vary the heights of new

    buildings to increase airflow, and opening more public air-conditioned spaces.

    Using Shandas’ research, Portland, the first city Shandas and his team surveyed, has proposed zoning

    code amendments and strategies targeting urban heat, including limiting paved neighborhood

    parking areas and increasing space for trees. In addition, city officials said that Shandas’ on-the-ground

    data clearly demonstrated a correlation between lower-income neighborhoods and higher

    temperatures. Shandas’ work also showed that the places where lower-income people often work, such

    as the industrial areas along Portland’s rivers, also experience higher-than-average temperatures, the

    officials said.

    Other urban he

    SOLUTION

  5. Morrison’s (2019) article “Can We Turn Down the Temperature on Urban Heat Islands?” published in the Yale Environment 360 magazine, highlights the use of citizen science volunteers and inexpensive thermal monitors to collect data on street-level temperatures across two dozen cities worldwide. The data is used to study the urban heat island effect, where metropolitan areas experience significantly higher temperatures than their surroundings. The article explains that the urban heat island effect is more complicated and subtler than satellite data indicates. On-the-ground data clearly demonstrate a correlation between lower-income neighborhoods and higher temperatures. The results of the study are being used to develop a range of innovative urban planning strategies to reduce the impact of heat waves.

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