Diseases of the Endocrine System|Course hero helper

Posted: February 26th, 2023

Week 8 – Diseases of the Endocrine System


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Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome 

Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome is a rare condition causing adrenal gland failure from an infection that usually affects children. It is a life-threatening disorder associated with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage because of fulminant meningococcemia bacteria that causes the adrenal gland to rupture and bleed within the adrenal cortex resulting in sudden death. This septic bacterial infection is rapid and leads to cardiovascular collapse. The syndrome starts with congestion of blood vessels that manifest with massive hemorrhaging and necrosis that results in a pinpoint rash and bruising all over the body. It presents on the trunk, lower portions of the body and also in the mucous membranes. The patient will also have nonspecific symptoms of headache, fever, weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and confusion.

The Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS), is named after two doctors, Rupert Waterhouse and Carl Friderichsen. They conducted a long-term study of the disorder described as WFS, a syndrome that affects bilateral adrenal glands from bacterial sepsis among children. The clinical study states the disorder is adrenal insufficiency along with bilateral adrenal gland hemorrhage.


To fully diagnose WFS, doctors conduct a full blood workup. The fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels will point towards occult bleeding. Treatment includes therapy for sepsis with antibiotics, steroids, and monitoring of electrolytes and water balance. Also, the doctor may opt for surgical angioembolization to one of the vessels supplying the adrenal gland to control the ongoing bleeding. The prognosis of WFS is 15 % of patients with acute bilateral adrenal bleeding die. 50% of patients die because of a delay in diagnosis and treatment. As with any vessel blockage, the embalmer may need to use a multi-point injection to create good distribution of arterial fluid.




I had not heard of an adrenal type cancer before this. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare type of cancer. Patient’s usually present with abdominal masses and symptoms, effecting stomach and abdominal areas. I read a very “high level” article, I found it to be a bit of hard read (I think it was meant for doctors or pathologists). It talks about the diagnosis process and the microscopic Weiss scoring of this cancer. It spoke of removing the cancerous tumor and even suspicious organs adjacent to infiltration or invasion. This cancer develops due to cancer cells for in the outer layers of the adrenal gland. This is serious as usual, but it aggressively spreads fast.




Week Eight: Discussion Forum

Week Eight: Discussion Forum


I chose a dish that I love, pasta! Alfredo pasta specifically.


Pasta is made from semolina, the granular product obtained from the endosperm of a type of wheat called durum and containing a large proportion of gluten (elastic protein), mixed with water or eggs.


Alfredo Sause is made up of several different simple ingredients usually.


Parmesan cheese; which is composed of galactose and glucose subunits and has the molecular formula C 12 H 22 O 11.

Butter; which is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H.

Heavy Cream, which is a dairy product composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. This cream may have thickening agents and stabilizers added. Thickeners include sodium alginate, carrageenan, gelatine, sodium bicarbonate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and alginic acid.


Such a simple thing yet full of chemistry! Super cool!


This is one of my absolute favorite chicken recipes! If any one is interested, we usually serve it with mashed potato’s and broccoli.




One thing this recipe calls for is flour. Like professor Fin said, flour is made up of starches and proteins. Another thing this recipe calls for is olive oil which is made up of triacylglycerols (triglycerides or fats) and contains small quantities of free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, phosphatides, pigments, flavor compounds, sterols, and microscopic bits of olive. The last ingredient I looked at was heavy cream. It is made of the fat that sits on top of milk. I decided to look deeper to find out that mild is made 87% of water and 13% of protein, fat, carbs, minerals, and vitamins.



Great observations, Samantha and Abigail! It’s amazing how even simple dishes like pasta and chicken recipes involve a lot of chemistry in their ingredients. The molecular formula and composition of each ingredient can affect the taste, texture, and even the cooking process of the dish. In addition to the chemical composition of the ingredients, there are also chemical reactions that occur during cooking. For example, when making Alfredo sauce, the proteins and sugars in the cheese and cream undergo a Maillard reaction when heated, resulting in the browned and savory flavor of the sauce. The flour in the chicken recipe also undergoes chemical changes when it’s mixed with other ingredients and heated, resulting in a crispy and golden coating.

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