Posted: March 3rd, 2023

For this assignment, you will add a new section to your Risk Assessment: Part 1 –
Vulnerability Analysis Critical Infrastructure Assignment and label it “Part 3.” Do not get
rid of Parts 1 and 2. Add to your existing table of contents and reference page at the end of the
In Part 3, you will:
1. Provide a single unit/station assessment. Clearly identify the unit of assessment.
2. The below tables will be needed along with the needed verbiage


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Risk assessment of Nashville BNA Airport

Parts I & II













Table of Contents

1.1Critical infrastructure, vulnerability analysis, and risk assessment 3

1.1.1 Defining and measuring risk 3

1.1.2 Threats and Hazards 3

1.1.3 Role of government in risk assessment 4

1.1.4 Asset-level vs. portfolio-level analysis 4

1.2 FEMA’s community perspective on mitigation 4

1.2.1 Tools, techniques, processes, and best practices for identifying critical infrastructure 5

1.3 CARVER 6

1.3.1 The critical infrastructure identification process 6

1.3.2 GIS data and mapping 6

1.3.3 National preparedness and homeland security directives 7

1.4 CIRK and NIP 7

1.5 HSPD 7 and HSA 2002 8

1.6 PPD 21 and the Stafford Act 8

1.6.1 Protective security and effective security countermeasures 9

1.6.2 Pure risk assessment model and security vulnerability analysis 9

Part II 10

2.1 Overview of 10

2.1.1 BNA 10

2.1.2 Location 10

2.1.3 Travelers 10

2.1.4 Flights and airlines 10

Part III 13

3.1 Structural and non-structural mitigation strategies 13

3.1.1 Assessment and recommendations 14

Conclusion 14

References 15

Arvdsson , B., Johanson , J., & Guldaker , N. (2021). Critical infrastructure, geographical information science and risk governance: A systematic cross-field review. Reliability Engineering and Safety 15

Felice , F., Baffo, I., & Petrillo, I. (2021). Critical Infrastructures Overview: Past, Present and Future. Sutainability , (14), 4. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/4/2233 15

Appendixes 17


Critical Infrastructure

1.1Critical infrastructure, vulnerability analysis, and risk assessment


The Department of Homeland Security lists sixteen critical substructure sectors whose assets, structures, and systems (physical or virtual) are so vital to the US that their disruption or obliteration would have a devastating impact on national security, financial security, public health, and care, or any grouping thereof (Krausmann, et al. 2019). Our essential substructures provide vital services. Significant resources are government, private, or individual property that may be evaluated economically. Vulnerability research quantifies vulnerabilities based on asset and threat evaluations and evaluates current security measures.

1.1.1 Defining and measuring risk


Risk is the probability that a vital asset may be damaged or lost due to a defined threat targeting and exploiting a specific susceptibility of a critical substructure, key source, or essential support. Risk assessments analyze a vital asset’s security system using specified scenarios. Serious asset value, threats, vulnerabilities, and the chance of exploitation determine risk.

1.1.2 Threats and Hazards


Threats foretell bad things. Successful threats can damage essential assets. Threats have intent. A hazard is an action or circumstance that exposes a danger. Terrorists or cyber-attacks are threats. Natural hazards include floods and hurricanes. All risks are human-made, and while most stakes are genuine, humans may cause them by ignorance or not following laws and procedures.


1.1.3 Role of government in risk assessment


Risk evaluations need unique government involvement. DHS says doctrine and guidelines are the first and most crucial stage in risk management integration. Risk management and risk assessments do not avoid evil occurrences but help agencies, corporations, and individuals focus on the most harmful actions and how to prevent or reduce them. FEMA, DHS, and community-developed risk assessments should be tailored to each resource and scenario. Individuals, companies, and agencies must follow the instructions and create mitigation strategies. The government assesses risk for assets that harm the US or essential assets within its jurisdiction.

1.1.4 Asset-level vs. portfolio-level analysis


Asset-level security gives baseline risk facts. Asset-level protection analyzes one asset at a time. Asset-level guard involves scenario documentation, importance, critical evaluation, security susceptibility assessment, hazard likelihood valuation, benefit/cost investigation, and risk-informed conclusions (Guo, et al., 2019). Portfolio risk assessment compares various assets to asset-level protection. Portfolio risk assessment involves investments, an industry, and an authority or city. Loss is the main distinction between asset and collection risk investigation. The portfolio-level investigation evaluates direct asset sufferers and indirect losses from physical geography, cyber, or internal and outside rational interdependencies, whereas asset-level analysis estimates asset losses solely.



1.2 FEMA’s community perspective on mitigation


FEMA lists five important infrastructure planning activities. First, they advocate a standard critical infrastructure identification process that includes assets and structures, dependencies, interdependencies, and significant nodes within the authority (FEMA). Second, acquire duplicates of current se




Threats are deliberate acts or circumstances that may cause harm to critical infrastructure assets or systems. Threats include terrorism, cyber attacks, natural disasters, and accidents. Hazards are natural or human-caused events that may lead to harm to infrastructure or systems, such as earthquakes, floods, power outages, or chemical spills. The government has a significant role in risk assessment and mitigation of critical infrastructure. The Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and other agencies have established guidelines, standards, and best practices for identifying and assessing risks to critical infrastructure. The government also provides funding, resources, and support for critical infrastructure protection. Asset-level analysis assesses the risks and vulnerabilities of individual assets, while portfolio-level analysis evaluates risks across multiple assets or systems. Portfolio-level analysis considers the interdependencies between assets and their potential impact on critical infrastructure.

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