Operational Excellence |My essay solution

Posted: March 4th, 2023

How do you define operational excellence?  What factors are involved in achieving operational excellence?  Who (within an organization) is responsible for operational excellence, and why is this important?

Please answer in 300 words or one full page without extra spacing.

Please refer to the attached textbooks.

Information Systems for Business and Beyond

David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

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Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/courses/bus206 Attributed to: David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

saylor.org

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Information Systems for Business and Beyond © 2014 David T. Bourgeois, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license made possible by funding from The Saylor Foundation’s Open Textbook Challenge in order to be incorporated into Saylor.org’s collection of open courses available at http://www.saylor.org. Full license terms may be viewed at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
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Contents

1Introduction

Part 1: What Is an Information System? Chapter 1: What Is an Information System?

5David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 2: Hardware 14David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 3: Software 26David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 4: Data and Databases 39David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 5: Networking and Communication 52David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 6: Information Systems Security 64David T. Bourgeois

Part 2: Information Systems for Strategic Advantage Chapter 7: Does IT Matter?

76David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 8: Business Processes 85David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 9: The People in Information Systems 94David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 10: Information Systems Development 104David T. Bourgeois

Part 3: Information Systems Beyond the Organization Chapter 11: Globalization and the Digital Divide

120David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 12: The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems 129David T. Bourgeois

Chapter 13: Future Trends in Information Systems 144David T. Bourgeois

150Answers to Study Questions 162Bibliography

iv Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/courses/bus206 Attributed to: David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

saylor.org

Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/courses/bus206 Attributed to: David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

Introduction

Welcome to Information Systems for Business and Beyond. In this book, you will be introduced to the concept of information systems, their use in business, and the larger impact they are having on our world.

Audience

This book is written as an introductory text, meant for those with little or no experience with computers or information systems. While sometimes the descriptions can get a little bit technical, every effort has been made to convey the information essential to understanding a topic while not getting bogged down in detailed terminology or esoteric discussions.

Chapter Outline

The text is organized around thirteen chapters divided into three major parts, as follows:

• Part 1: What Is an Information System? Chapter 1: What Is an Information System? – This chapter provides an overview of information systems, including the history of how we got where we are today. Chapter 2: Hardware – We discuss information systems hardware and how it works. You will look at different computer parts and learn how they interact. Chapter 3: Software – Without software, hardware is useless. In this chapter, we discuss software and the role it plays in an organization. Chapter 4: Data and Databases – This chapter explores how organizations use information systems to turn data into information that can then be used for competitive advantage. Special attention is paid to the role of databases. Chapter 5: Networking and Communication – Today’s computers are expected to also be communication devices. In this chapter we review the history of networking, how the Internet works, and the use of networks in organizations today. Chapter 6: Information Systems Security – We discuss the information security triad of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. We will review different security technologies, and the chapter concludes with a primer on personal information security.

• Part 2: Information Systems for Strategic Advantage Chapter 7: Does IT Matter? – This chapter examines the impact that information systems have on an organization. Can IT give a company a competitive advantage? We will

1Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/courses/bus206 Attributed to: David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

saylor.org

Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/courses/bus206 Attributed to: David T. Bourgeois, Ph.D.

discuss seminal works by Brynjolfsson, Carr, and Porter as they relate to IT and competitive advantage. Chapter 8: Business Processes – Business processes are the essence of what a business does, and information systems play an important role in making them work. This chapter will discuss business process management, business process reengineering, and ERP systems. Chapter 9: The People in Information Systems – This chapter will provide an overview of the different types of people involved in information systems. This includes people who create information systems, those who operate and administer information systems, those who manage information systems, and those who use information systems. Chapter 10: Information Systems Development – How are information systems created? This chapter will review the concept of programming, look at different methods of software development, review website and mobile application development, discuss end- user computing, and look at the “build vs. buy” decision that many companies face.

• Part 3: Information Systems beyond the Organization Chapter 11: Globalization and the Digital Divide – The rapid rise of the Internet has made it easier than ever to do business worldwide. This chapter will look at the impact that the Internet is having on the globalization of business and the issues that firms must face because of it. It will also cover the concept of the digital divide and some of the steps being taken to alleviate it. Chapter 12: The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems – The rapid changes in information and communication technology in the past few decades have brought a broad array of new capabilities and powers to governments, organizations, and individuals alike. This chapter will discuss the effects that these new capabilities have had and the legal and regulatory changes that have been put in place in response. Chapter 13: Future Trends in Information Systems – This final chapter will present an overview of some of the new technologies that are on the horizon. From wearable technology to 3-D printing, this chapter will provide a look forward to what the next few years will bring.

For the Student

Each chapter in this text begins with a list of the relevant learning objectives and ends with a chapter summary. Following the summary is a list of study questions that highlight key topics in the chapter. In order to get the best learning experience, you would be wise to begin by reading both the learning objectives and the summary and then reviewing the questions at the end of the chapter.

2 Information Systems for Business and Beyond

Information Technology and Organizational

Learning Managing Behavioral Change

in the Digital Age Third Edition

Information Technology and Organizational

Learning Managing Behavioral Change

in the Digital Age Third Edition

Arthur M. Langer

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

© 2018 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works

Printed on acid-free paper

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-7575-5 (Paperback) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-138-23858-9 (Hardback)

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.

Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor- age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.

For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copy- right.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

v

Contents

Foreword xi Acknowledgments xiii Author xv IntroductIon xvii

chApter 1 the “rAvell” corporAtIon 1 Introduction 1 A New Approach 3

The Blueprint for Integration 5 Enlisting Support 6 Assessing Progress 7

Resistance in the Ranks 8 Line Management to the Rescue 8 IT Begins to Reflect 9 Defining an Identity for Information Technology 10 Implementing the Integration: A Move toward Trust and Reflection 12 Key Lessons 14

Defining Reflection and Learning for an Organization 14 Working toward a Clear Goal 15 Commitment to Quality 15 Teaching Staff “Not to Know” 16 Transformation of Culture 16

Alignment with Administrative Departments 17 Conclusion 19

vi Contents

chApter 2 the It dIlemmA 21 Introduction 21 Recent Background 23 IT in the Organizational Context 24 IT and Organizational Structure 24 The Role of IT in Business Strategy 25 Ways of Evaluating IT 27 Executive Knowledge and Management of IT 28 IT: A View from the Top 29

Section 1: Chief Executive Perception of the Role of IT 32 Section 2: Management and Strategic Issues 34 Section 3: Measuring IT Performance and Activities 35 General Results 36

Defining the IT Dilemma 36 Recent Developments in Operational Excellence 38

chApter 3 technology As A vArIAble And responsIve orgAnIzAtIonAl dynAmIsm 41 Introduction 41 Technological Dynamism 41 Responsive Organizational Dynamism 42

Strategic Integration 43 Summary 48

Cultural Assimilation 48 IT Organization Communications with “ Others” 49 Movement of Traditional IT Staff 49 Summary 51

Technology Business Cycle 52 Feasibility 53 Measurement 53 Planning 54 Implementation 55 Evolution 57 Drivers and Supporters 58

Santander versus Citibank 60 Information Technology Roles and Responsibilities 60 Replacement or Outsource 61

chApter 4 orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng theorIes And technology 63 Introduction 63 Learning Organizations 72 Communities of Practice 75 Learning Preferences and Experiential Learning 83 Social Discourse and the Use of Language 89

Identity 91 Skills 92

viiContents

Emotion 92 Linear Development in Learning Approaches 96

chApter 5 mAnAgIng orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng And technology 109 The Role of Line Management 109

Line Managers 111 First-Line Managers 111 Supervisor 111

Management Vectors 112 Knowledge Management 116 Ch ange Management 120 Change Management for IT Organizations 123 Social Networks and Information Technology 134

chApter 6 orgAnIzAtIonAl trAnsFormAtIon And the bAlAnced scorecArd 139 Introduction 139 Methods of Ongoing Evaluation 146 Balanced Scorecards and Discourse 156 Knowledge Creation, Culture, and Strategy 158

chApter 7 vIrtuAl teAms And outsourcIng 163 Introduction 163 Status of Virtual Teams 165 Management Considerations 166 Dealing with Multiple Locations 166

Externalization 169 Internalization 171 Combination 171 Socialization 172 Externalization Dynamism 172 Internalization Dynamism 173 Combination Dynamism 173 Socialization Dynamism 173

Dealing with Multiple Locations and Outsourcing 177 Revisiting Social Discourse 178 Identity 179 Skills 180 Emotion 181

chApter 8 synergIstIc unIon oF It And orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng 187 Introduction 187 Siemens AG 187

Aftermath 202 ICAP 203

viii Contents

Five Years Later 224 HTC 225

IT History at HTC 226 Interactions of the CEO 227 The Process 228 Transformation from the Transition 229 Five Years Later 231

Summary 233

chApter 9 FormIng A cyber securIty culture 239 Introduction 239 History 239 Talking to the Board 241 Establishing a Security Culture 241 Understanding What It Means to be Compromised 242 Cyber Security Dynamism and Responsive Organizational Dynamism 242 Cyber Strategic Integration 243 Cyber Cultural Assimilation 245 Summary 246 Organizational Learning and Application Development 246 Cyber Security Risk 247 Risk Responsibility 248 Driver /Supporter Implications 250

chApter 10 dIgItAl trAnsFormAtIon And chAnges In consumer behAvIor 251 Introduction 251 Requirements without Users and without Input 254 Concepts of the S-Curve and Digital Transformation Analysis and Design 258 Organizational Learning and the S-Curve 260 Communities of Practice 261 The IT Leader in the Digital Transformation Era 262 How Technology Disrupts Firms and Industries 264

Dynamism and Digital Disruption 264 Critical Components of “ Digital” Organization 265 Assimilating Digital Technology Operationally and Culturally 267 Conclusion 268

chApter 11 IntegrAtIng generAtIon y employees to AccelerAte competItIve AdvAntAge 269 Introduction 269 The Employment Challenge in the Digital Era 270 Gen Y Population Attributes 272 Advantages of Employing Millennials to Support Digital Transformation 272 Integration of Gen Y with Baby Boomers and Gen X 273

ixContents

Designing the Digital Enterprise 274 Assimilating Gen Y Talent from Underserved and Socially Excluded Populations 276 Langer Workforce Maturity Arc 277

Theoretical Constructs of the LWMA 278 The LWMA and Action Research 281

Implications for New Pathways for Digital Talent 282 Demographic Shifts in Talent Resources 282 Economic Sustainability 283 Integration and Trust 283

Global Implications for Sources of Talent 284 Conclusion 284

chApter 12 towArd best prActIces 287 Introduction 287 Chief IT Executive 288 Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the Chief IT Executive Best Practices Arc 297

Maturity Stages 297 Performance Dimensions 298

Chief Executive Officer 299 CIO Direct Reporting to the CEO 305 Outsourcing 306 Centralization versus Decentralization of IT 306 CIO Needs Advanced Degrees 307 Need for Standards 307 Risk Management 307

The CEO Best Practices Technology Arc 313 Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc 314

Maturity Stages 314 Performanc

SOLUTION

Operational excellence is a management philosophy that aims to continuously improve an organization’s processes and systems to deliver value to its customers while minimizing waste and inefficiencies. It involves a combination of strategy, people, processes, and technology to create a culture of continuous improvement.

To achieve operational excellence, organizations need to focus on several factors, including:

  1. Process improvement: Organizations must streamline their processes to reduce errors and delays, increase efficiency, and improve quality.
  2. Employee empowerment: Employees need to be empowered to make decisions and solve problems, which helps create a culture of continuous improvement.
  3. Data analysis: Organizations must collect and analyze data to identify trends and areas for improvement.
  4. Customer focus: Organizations must understand their customers’ needs and preferences and use this information to drive their operations.
  5. Innovation: Organizations need to continually look for ways to innovate and improve their operations, products, and services.

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