Posted: March 4th, 2023


Techniques Summaries: Chapter 9, Chapter 10, and Chapter 11 (ATTACHED)

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These assessments are designed to help you become an active learner through consistent immersion in the concepts taught in this course. I want you to write professionally in the 3rd person, such as “Reflective listening is a technique that involves”…. no use of 1st person.  I predict that you will learn about yourself as you learn the course content. Length: 3 pages double-spaced 12-point Times New Roman font). If you use references, use APA style.

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Chapter 9 “Why Assessment?

Assessment means gathering and organizing information about a client and the

client’s problems. Helpers collect information in a variety of ways, beginning with

the first contact as the helper studies the client’s behavior and listens to the story.

Formal assessment methods include testing and filling out questionnaires and

forms. Informal assessment encompasses all the other ways a helper learns about

a client, including observing and questioning. Formal assessment may occur at a

specific time in the helping relationship, but informal assessment is an ongoing

process because a client’s progress and the temperature of the therapeutic

relationship must be tested throughout. ”

“Because each client’s situation is unique, it is impossible to predict how much

time to give to each stage of the helping process. Still, a rule of thumb is to spend

one session primarily in relationship building, with the only assessment activities

being the collection of basic demographics, observation of the client’s behavior,

and whatever else you can glean from the client’s story. The second and possibly a

third session are spent in a more in-depth assessment before moving on to a goal-

setting phase, which might include testing. Therefore, if a client is seen for 10

sessions, about 10% of the time may be devoted to assessment. Beginning a

relationship with a formal assessment can be a mistake because the initial

moments of any human encounter are so important (Gladwell, 2005). Imagine

how you would feel if you went for a doctor’s appointment and were asked only

to fill out forms, contribute blood samples, and answer questions but were not

allowed to talk about the reason for your visit.

When clients have been invited to tell their stories, they give much more

information during the formal assessment period that follows. They leave the first

session believing that they have made a start on solving problems, instead of

feeling dissected by tests and probing questions. Key data need to be collected at

the first interview, but there are several ways to handle this. For clients who can

read and write, asking them to come in early to fill out paperwork can be an

effective way of collecting information about their background and current


Assessment Is a Critical Part of Helping

Sometimes you will hear that gathering a lot of historical information about a

client is not worthwhile. Certain theories emphasize the present and the future

rather than the past, and so they ignore history and personality data. It is true that

some helpers do spend an inordinate amount of time gathering background

information and administering tests. On the other hand, by failing to collect

critical data, you take the chance of making a serious mistake. You must know

your customer thoroughly (Gelso, Nutt Williams, & Fretz, 2014; Lukas, 1993).

Once I interviewed a 65-year-old man who had been a shoe salesman in

Cleveland. He had led an interesting life before retiring about 2 years before we

met. He reported no real difficulties, and, as he was very convincing, I couldn’t

understand why he had consulted me. As a courtesy, I talked separately to his 28-

year-old son, who had waited patiently outside. The son told me his father had

been a physician in Texas and 5 years ago developed a syndrome, which was

thought to be Alzheimer disease, a severe brain disorder with a deteriorating

course. When the client could not remember, he simply filled in gaps in his history

with very conv

Chapter 12 Activating Client Expectations, Hope, and Motivation

Before learning the techniques for activating expectations, hope, and motivation, it is

important to recognize the immediate obstacles most clients are experiencing when

they first come for help: discouragement, lack of confidence, and demoralization.

Remember that seeking professional help is often a last resort. The clients have already

tried several ways to solve their problems. They have probably consulted clergy, family,

and friends. They have come to believe that there may be no way out of their difficulties.

Therefore, before the clients can attack their problems, they must first overcome the

conviction that their situation is hopeless.

The Demoralization Hypothesis

According to Jerome Frank (de Figueiredo, 2007; Kissane, 2017; Frank & Frank, 1991),

those who seek professional help are demoralized. Demoralization is described by Frank

as a “state of mind characterized by one or more of the following: subjective

incompetence, loss of self-esteem, alienation, hopelessness (feeling that no one can

help), or helplessness (feeling that other people could help but will not)” (p. 56). Frank

also proposes that client symptoms and mental demoralization interact. In other words,

according to the demoralization hypothesis client problems and symptoms are worsened

by the sense of discouragement and isolation. For example, sleeplessness may be seen

as a minor annoyance by one person, whereas the demoralized individual sees it as yet

another sign of the hopelessness of the situation. Seligman (1975) experimentally

discovered an aspect of demoralization called learned helplessness , which is a state

analogous to depression. In that research Seligman found that dogs and people exposed

to unsolvable problems became so discouraged that their later performance on solvable

problems was negatively affected. Many clients do not give the helping process their full

effort because they have little confidence that anything can help them. Thus, it is often a

first task of the helper to instill some hope that some of the presenting problems can be

solved. With renewed hope, the client will be more fully invested in the therapeutic


Motivation and Readiness

Instead of classifying demoralized clients as resistant or unmotivated, you can think of

people as being at various stages of readiness for change. Steve de Shazer (1988)

classified clients as visitors , complainants , or customers . The analogy is that clients

who come to a professional helper are like clients in a retail store. Some are browsing

(visitors), others have a need to buy something and are checking out the prices and



Theory of Why it Works:
Assessment is a crucial component of the therapeutic process as it enables helpers to gain a better understanding of their clients and their problems. By collecting and organizing information, helpers can develop a clear picture of their clients’ needs and tailor their interventions accordingly. Assessment also helps to establish a baseline for measuring progress, allowing helpers to track changes and evaluate the effectiveness of their interventions. Barriers to Success:
There are several barriers to successful assessment, including the reluctance of clients to disclose sensitive information, cultural and linguistic differences, and the limitations of assessment tools. Helpers must be sensitive to these barriers and use a variety of techniques to overcome them, such as building trust with clients, using culturally appropriate assessment methods, and adapting assessment tools to suit individual needs.

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