American History Through Southern Eyes|My homework helper

Posted: March 8th, 2023

Discussion 6, “American History Through Southern Eyes”

https://youtu.be/NSwg7Vp6rBU

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Student must answer at least four questions below:

1. In what ways did cotton impact southern slavery?

2. What is the significance of the “cotton-gin?”

3. What is the significance of share-cropping in the documentary?

4.  How did cotton influence African American art?

5. How did cotton impact southern women in the 1800s?

6. Who is Eli Whitney?

7. How did the cotton economy impact the stability of the African American family after slavery?

8. What is the significance of Augusta, Georgia and its relationship to cotton in the 1800s?

9.  What is the significance of England and its relationship to cotton in the 1800s?

 

 

Quiz 4: The Migration of New World Blacks to Sierra Leone and Liberia

Students must answer all of the questions below after reading the attached article:

OAHMagazineBackToAfrica

1. What is the overall point of the article?

2.  Who are the major characters?

3.  Why did the free Blacks choose to return to Africa?

4. How did free Blacks pay for their return to African/

5. What countries did free Blacks return to?

6. How many African Americans returned to the

7. Why do you think most African Americans did not want to return to Africa?

8. What are the major conclusions of this particular article?

9.  When did these events in the article take place?

10. Why do you think the issues in this article are not taught or addressed in high schools, middle schools, or elementary schools?

 

Discussion 7: Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson

 

Student are required to answer the four questions below briefly, after viewing the document below:

1.  Who was Jack Johnson, and what were his challenges growing up?

 

2.  What is the setting (location and time period) in which Johnson lived?

 

3.  What is Johnson’s claim to fame in African American history, and why do some historians consider him outstanding today?

 

4.  How is Johnson relevant to today, to Texas, and to you?

Back to Africa:” The Migration of New World Blacks to Sierra Leone and Liberia Author(s): Nemata Amelia Blyden Source: OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 18, No. 3, The Atlantic World (Apr., 2004), pp. 23- 25 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of Organization of American Historians Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163679 Accessed: 10-01-2018 00:46 UTC

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Organization of American Historians, Oxford University Press are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to OAH Magazine of History

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Nemata Amelia Blyden

“Back to Africa:” The Migration of New World Blacks

to Sierra Leone and Liberia

Much of the work on migration in the Atlantic World has focused on population movements from Europe to the New

World. Studies that look at the migration of Africans and their descendants within the Atlantic World have similarly empha sized east to west migration patterns, concentrating on the forced

migration of Africans in the slave trade or on the indentured labor systems in the post-emancipation era. Until recently, much less attention has been paid to west to east migration patterns and much less is known about the mi gration of individuals of Afri can descent in the Atlantic world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Throughout this period, blacks voluntarily migrated within various parts of the Atlantic World. Olaudah Equiano’s is the most famil iar story of an eighteenth-cen tury African who moved between worlds in the Atlan

tic. Equiano (1745-1797) wrote of his capture as a young boy and his subsequent experi ences in North America, the Caribbean, and Britain (1).

We know of Equiano’s movements because he re corded them, but how many more men and women like Equiano existed? Though we now know more about the movement of Africans from region to region in the Atlantic World, there is room for more research to be done. Recent work shows that Africans and people of African descent migrated or traveled not only as slaves, but also as free people. Individuals of African heritage left the Americas for Africa and moved between places in the Atlantic World, often more than once. Further more, we now know that the movement of Africans in the Adantic

World was not predominantly a male enterprise. Although women

migrated in smaller numbers and were less likely to record their movements, they also moved within the Atlantic World. Historians are often hindered in their explorations of these movements by the fact that many migrants did not leave a record of their travels and lives. Some work has been done on the “back to Africa” movement in the

nineteenth century, particularly the emigration movement to Liberia sponsored by the American Colonization Society and the migration of New World blacks to Sierra Leone. What, if anything, distinguishes

this migration from other types of migration? What did it mean for New World blacks

to migrate to Africa? This es say explores the return migra tion of blacks in the New

World to Africa, with particu lar attention to Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Sierra Leone’s origins were closely tied to the anti slavery movement in Britain. Humanitarians who were in fluential in founding the colony believed that establish ing a free settlement on the African coast would be the best way to destroy the slave trade. The colony’s first im

migrant settiers were the black poor, blacks loyal to the Brit ish in the American Revolu

tion who were transported to England, later settling in Af rica in 1787. These destitute

men and women were portrayed as vagrants and seen as undesirable by a large portion of British society. Humanitarians like William

Wilberforce (1759-1833) and Granville Sharp (1735-1813) believed a return to Africa would improve their circumstances. In 1792, loyalist blacks from Nova Scotia settled in Sierra Leone, followed by maroons (runaway slaves) from Jamaica in 1800. Africans recaptured from slave ships augmented the colony’s population. Sierra Leone was a

Waterfront view of Bassua Harbor in Liberia. (Watercolor by Robert K. Griffin, ca. 1856. Image courtesy the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.)

OAH Magazine of History April 2004 23

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unique social experiment. Its diversity, characterized by various African ethnicities and multicultural New World

black populations, made it an interesting place during the nineteenth century. Governed by the British, who hoped to see it grow into a model colony of pliant citizens grateful for the salvation European influence brought, the small colony turned out to be a site of friction and racial tension with its

inhabitants exhibiting unexpected individuality and inde pendence.

There were attempts to settle African Americans in Sierra Leone during the nineteenth century, but the British government was reluctant to encourage such migrations. Ironically, they argued that African American settlers would bring democratic ideals of liberty and equality, negatively influencing the blacks in their colony. A small number of African Americans, however, did settle in Sierra Leone. In 1816, the black New England merchant, Paul Cuffe, brought thirty-eight settlers to Sierra Leone. This would be the first

migration of African Americans from the United States to Africa. Over the years, Sierra Leone had its share of promi nent African American migrants such as Daniel Coker, cofounder with Richard Allen of the African Methodist

Episcopal Church, and Edward Jones, first African Ameri can graduate of Amherst College in Massachusetts, and later president of Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leone, the first institution of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa.

In many ways, Sierra Leone became a model for Liberia, which was setded by African Americans under the auspices of the American Colonization Society (ACS) in 1821. This organization, founded in 1816, sent its first shipload of blacks to Africa in 1819. The Americans traveled to Africa hoping to establish a setdement on Sherbro Island near Sierra Leone. This mission proved unsuccessful and the emi grants moved to Cape Mesurado, settling what was later to become Liberia. Some African Americans from this first expedition setded in Sierra Leone, intermarrying with Africans and integrating into the colony’s society. Founded with the express purpose of colonizing free blacks in Africa or anywhere outside of the United States, the ACS encouraged free blacks to take advantage of passage to Africa. Many blacks supported the organization because they believed that by emigrating they could better their condition.

The American Revolution was a watershed in race relations in the

United States, strengthening the divisions between the races as Americans were forced to confront their ideas about freedom and

democracy. By the 1790s, slavery was accepted as a suitable condition for blacks. Although revolutionary rhetoric had called for freedom and equality with God-given inalienable rights for everyone, the South needed slave labor and slavery had to be rationalized. As slavery hardened, so did the conditions for the small free black population in southern states. The necessity for racial subordination in a slave society ensured that blacks would face economic, political, and social restrictions. Though slavery had virtually ended in the North by the end of the eighteenth century, there were clear divisions between the races. Blacks continued to face discrimination and oppressive condi tions. Race was used to justify slavery as whites argued that blacks were unsuited for citizenship and freedom.

 

SOLUTION

Cotton impacted southern slavery by creating a higher demand for slave labor as cotton became a highly profitable crop. The cotton boom in the early 19th century caused an increase in the number of slaves in the South, and many were forced to work long hours in the fields to meet the high demand for cotton production.

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